Human beings need different things to live in this world. However, nothing in this world is available for free. Everything has a price and you have to pay the right price to meet your needs. However, we value things based on our needs and needs depend on the basis of our value system.
First, there are basic needs such as food, water, air, shelter, and clothing without which the survival of the body itself is not possible. However, once these needs are satisfied, man moves to meet his higher needs, such as social needs, security needs or the need for self-realization.
However, not everyone follows the same path since their path would depend on the inherent values of the person. These inherent values are acquired by man by virtue of his nature and also by his upbringing. The effect of family, society, nation, and the individual makes each person unique as they develop a unique set of values. These values decide the priority and the lifestyle of the person. Values mark the personality of the person and decide the growth of the individual, the family, the society, the nation and humanity.
1. Individualistic values
The most inherent worth of a person is individualistic, which means valuing the self above anything else in the world. This is also the most natural value inherent in all the animals in the world. Animals live by themselves without caring much for other animals. The only exception would be the animal mother who cares for her animal child until the child is old enough to support himself.
The modern world has been moving more and more towards individualistic values where the interest of the individual is considered the most “correct” and needs to be protected above all else. The individualistic value supports freedom since it believes that everyone has the right to decide what is convenient for them.
Every child starts out with individualistic values and wants everything in the world for himself and wants everyone to serve him. When the child’s need is not met, he cries and does his best to meet the need.
2. Family values
The human species may be the most powerful species on earth, but it is also true that the human species is also the weakest species. A human child does not even learn to walk for a year. If the son of man is allowed to survive on his own, he simply cannot survive. Family support is essential for the growth of every human child. It is for this reason that the human species throughout the year has invented the concept of the family that lives as a unit and supports the newborn child until it becomes strong enough to support itself.
The concept of family has given rise to the family value where the family is considered to be the basic unit of society rather than the individual. The family has the right and the power to control the other family member. In a family system, family members divide their work so that all members perform complementary functions instead of performing the same functions. For example, the father makes a living and protects the family by being the strongest member of the family. The mother takes care of the family by cooking the food, cleaning the house and raising the children. The children, for their part, obtain these benefits free of charge from their parents, but they have a family obligation to provide the same benefits to their children. Thus the family ensures the continuity of the family’s value and tradition.
In the family system, the interest of each family member is protected through an unwritten law, since only love and trust govern the management of a family. Parents do not seek any personal gain when they give something to their children. Children also recognize the contributions of parents in building their lives and not only pass on the same benefits to their own children, but also take care of their parents as they age.
The entire system of family values is upheld by tradition and trust.
However, when family values are strong, it results in the reduction of individual freedom and the decline of individual values. Each person has to think of the family first and the self as secondary. This often kills man’s creativity, as he is never free to think as an individual.
3. Professional values
A society is made up of not only families that are natural, but also by origin that are artificially created to meet a specific requirement of society. The government is one of the most important organizations that was created to bring order to society. The government is divided into different departments such as police, revenue, defense, etc., which are necessary to hold the country together and protect it from external aggressions. There are many other organizations that are run by private individuals or bodies that produce goods and provide services to the people of the nation and the world.
Everyone has to join an origination to earn a living and contribute to society. These organizations are designed to fulfill a specialized function of society and therefore need a set of values to keep everyone in the organization motivated and united.
Thus, man develops a set of values due to his profession. The values of a police officer are different from the values of a judge or a politician. Each profession has its own set of values that often contradict the values of another profession. However, these values are necessary to keep professionals together and deliver what is expected of them.
4. National values
Today’s world is divided into several countries and each country is sovereign and independent. However, in recent years countries have begun to behave like members of the family as independence is gradually being replaced by interdependence in globalized economies. If China is emerging as the world’s manufacturing hub, India has become the world’s outsourcing and outsourcing hub from where different services are provided to the world. The Arab world is producing oil for the world and the United States has taken the lead in creating knowledge and information technology for the world. Each country is gradually becoming a specialist in a specific task and fulfilling the rest of the requirements of other countries in the world.
Thus, just as individuals and families have to compete and complement each other for their survival in a society, each nation has to compete and complement other countries in the world. To strengthen the nation, certain types of values must be cultivated in its citizens, which makes the country not made up of millions or billions of people or families, but as a single family.
By virtue of independence, each country develops values that evolve over time. The values of a nation represent its tradition, history and experiences of its people since its inception. The values of India and China are many thousands of years old, while the values of the newly created nations such as the United States, Israel, Australia and Pakistan are quite new.
National values are usually codified in its laws that seek to grant equality and justice to all its citizens. There, there is a great diversity in these laws since the requirement of each country is different. The violation of national values is treated as criminal acts that are sanctioned by the State. Therefore, countries with strong national values enforce their laws very severely, since they maintain the interest of the country over the interest of the individual.
5. Moral values
Although the legal values of a country or society are documented and enforced, they are insufficient for the proper functioning of the state. The ideal state is one in which the state does not have to enforce any laws, since citizens voluntarily follow the laws of the country. However, this rarely happens as all state laws are written by the people who are in power or who have influence over powerful people. These powerful people ensure that laws are written in favor of the few and not in favor of the masses. Therefore, over a period of time, the application of the laws creates a class of people who are extremely powerful and wealthy, while the majority of the population lives a life of misery and poverty.
However, the disparity and injustice created by the law are greatly reduced due to the prevalence of moral values in society that do not need to be codified in the statute books. However, moral values are transmitted from one generation to another by tradition. For example, the sanctity of the institution of marriage in India has kept the divorce rate to a minimum despite having the divorce provision on the law books like any other Western country. Moral laws are jointly applied by society. Since every man wants to be loved and respected by society, moral values are often more powerful in keeping man on the right track than legal application.
6. Spiritual values
All the values adopted by men create exclusivity in human beings, since these values are different for each society and, indeed, for each man. Values are, therefore, the source of conflict in the world, since each person or nation firmly believes in their values as correct. However, all of these values are non-permanent and transitory that change over time and space. The values of the current generation are not the same as those of the previous generation.
However, there is some ingredient in all values that never changes. It has remained the same in the long years of human evolution. These values are eternal as they never change. Therefore, people often call these values as spiritual or divine, since they never die and their origin is not known either.
These are the spiritual values.
Spiritual values are often attributed to God and are called divine. Spiritual values include love, compassion, justice, truth, etc. It is the nature of man to assimilate these values regardless of his religion, race, culture or nationality. These values are so universal that all human beings seem to understand them without being taught.
Spiritual values unite all human beings in this world. It is because of these spiritual values that we want justice and we cannot see injustice in this world. Feelings of love and compassion cut across all barriers of religion, race, and nationality. Spiritual values cannot be eliminated from man and these are universal.
The conflict of values
No person can have only one set of values and all human beings are governed by the combination of all values. However, the dominant value in each person is different and arises due to birth in a particular family, culture, religion or nationality. Values also change with the age of the person as the same person transforms from individual to family man. When a person grows up and earns a living, he has to work in some profession in which his professional values are developed. National values are also rooted in the person due to the common value shared by citizens. However, as men age, they tend to become spiritual and develop spiritual values. Therefore, the six values always prevail in all societies that keep society moving and united.